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Forza - Defining Doors
Veneer Guide

Timber Density Chart

The characteristics and uses of a broad range of species seen in the UK are contained in this Wood Information sheet. The characteristics shown in the following tables are described below.

Species The standard names recommended in BS 7359 Nomenclature of commercial timbers including sources of supply are given in bold in the tables. The botanical names are included to avoid confusion between different timbers which may have similar common names. The main regions of origin are indicated for each timber.

Colour(s) Related to the heart of the species. Most timbers vary in colour and will change with use, the application of finishes and exposure to light. Unprotected timber exposed to the weather will discolour and may develop and may develop mould growth.

Density Varies depending on species and moisture content. Averages at 15% moisture content are quoted; 0.5% of the given weight can be added for every 1% increase in moisture content. (*Indicates that density can vary by 20% or more.)

Texture Surface texture is classified as fine, medium or coarse.

Availability Described in broad terms as regular, limited or variable. It will vary both from time to time and throughout the country. Some species may not be available as raw material (or only in time quantities) but may be seen as veneer on furniture or panelling. Other species have been included because of their historical or technical interest or importance.

Trading in some species is governed by CITES - the Convention  in International Trade in Endangered Species which lists species in three categories:

Appendix I - Trading prohibited

Appendix II - Trading permitted subject to export permits from the country of origin (and re-export permits as appropriate) and UK import permits from Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs.

Appendix III - Species protected within individual party states.

Note that CITES listing covers the raw material only, not manufactured products.

CITES is implemented within the European Union by EC Regulations; the species listing is broadly equivalent to CITES listing. In the UK this legislation is backed by the Control of Trade in 1997. Further information is available from www.ukcites.gov.uk.

Price Price is difficult to quantify since timber is affected by currency variations. However, to give a general indication of comparative prices, the following terms are used:

          High             Over £1,000 per cubic metre

          Medium       £550 - £999 per cubic meter

          Low              Up to £550 per cubic metre

(1999 prices) The prices relate to decorative hardwoods: structural softwoods will normally fall into the cheaper half of the low category. Prices are for kiln dried stock where appropriate.

Colour

Species/ Origin

Timber Type/ Colour

Density kg/m3

Texture

Availability/ Price

 

Abura

W Africa

Hardwood

Light brown

580*

Medium/ Fine

Limited Low

 

Afrormosia

W Africa

Hardwood

Light brown

710

Medium/ Fine

CITES II

 

Afzelia (doussié)

W Africa

Hardwood

Reddish-brown

830*

Medium/ Course

Limited Medium

 

Agba

W Africa

Hardwood

Yellowish-brown

510

Medium

Limited Medium

 

Andiroba

S America

Hardwood

Pink to red-brown

640

Medium/ Course

Limited Medium

 

Ash, American

USA

Hardwood

Grey, brown

670*

Course

Regular Medium

 

Ash, European

Europe

Hardwood

White to light brown

710*

Medium/ Course

Regular Medium

 

Aspen (American, Canadian)

Canada, USA

Hardwood

Grey, white to pale brown

450

Fine

Variable Low

 

Balsa

S America

Hardwood

White

160*

Fine

Limited Medium

 

Basswood

N America

Hardwood

Creamy white to pale brown

420

Fine

Limited Medium

 

Beech, European

Europe

Hardwood

Whitish to pale brown, pinkish-red if steamed

720

Fine

Regular Low/Medium

 

Birch, American

North America

Hardwood

Light to dark reddish brown

640/ 710

Fine

Regular

Low

 

Birch, European

Europe

Hardwood

White to light brown

670

Fine

Limited

Low

 

Cedar (of Lebanon)

Europe

Softwood

Light brown

580

Medium

Limited

Low

 

"Cedar, Central/S American"

Central & S America

Hardwood

Pinkish-brown to dark reddish-brown

480

Coarse

Limited

Medium

Colour

Species/ Origin

Timber Type/ Colour

Density kg/m3

Texture

Availability/ Price

 

Cherry, American

USA

Hardwood

Reddish-brown to red

580

Fine

Limited

Medium

 

Cherry, European

Europe

Hardwood

Pinkish-brown

630

Fine

Limited

Medium/High

 

Chestnut, sweet

Europe

Hardwood

Yellowish-brown

560

Medium

Limited

Medium

 

Danta

W Africa

Hardwood

Reddish-brown

750

Fine

Limited

Low

 

"Douglas fir"

N America & UK

Softwood

Light reddish-brown

530

Medium

Regular

Medium

 

Ebony

W Africa, India, Sri Lanka

Hardwood

Black, some grey/ black stripes

1030/

1190

Fine

Limited

High

 

Elm, European

Europe

Hardwood

Light brown

560*

Coarse

Limited

Medium

 

Elm, White

N America

Hardwood

Pale Reddish-brown

580

Coarse

Limited

Medium

 

Gaboon

W Africa

Hardwood

Pinkish brown

430

Medium

Limited

Medium

 

Gedu nohor/edinam

W Africa

Hardwood

Reddish brown

560

Medium

Limited

Low/Medium

 

Geronggang

S E Asia

Hardwood

Pink to red

540

Coarse

Variable

Low

 

Guarea

W Africa

Hardwood

Pinkish brown

590

Medium

Variable

Low/Medium

 

Idigbo

W Africa

Hardwood

Yellow

560*

Medium

Variable

Medium

 

Iroko

W Africa

Hardwood

Yellow-brown

660

Medium

Regular

Low/Medium

 

Kapur

S E Asia

Hardwood

Reddish-brown

770*

Medium

Variable

Medium

 

Limba/Afara

W Africa

Hardwood

Pale yellow, brown/straw

560*

Medium

Limited

Low/medium

 

Mahogany, Africa

W Africa

Hardwood

Reddish-brown

530*

Medium

Regular

Low/Medium

Colour

Species/ Origin

Timber Type/ Colour

Density kg/m3

Texture

Availability/ Price

 

Mahogany, American

Central & S America

Hardwood

Reddish-brown

560*

Medium

CITES III

Regular

High

 

Makoré

W Africa

Hardwood

Pinkish-brown to dark red

640

Fine

Variable

Medium

 

Maple, rock

N America

Hardwood

Creamy white

740

Fine

Regular

Medium

 

Maple, soft

N America

Hardwood

Creamy white

550*

Fine

Limited

Medium

 

Mengkulang

S E Asia

Hardwood

Red, brown

720

Coarse

Limited

Medium

 

Meranti, dark red/dark red seraya/red lauan

S E Asia

Hardwood

Medium to dark red-brown

710*

Medium

Regular

Low/Medium

 

Meranti, light red/light red seraya/white lauan

S E Asia

Hardwood

Pale pink to mid red

550*

Medium

Regular

Low

 

Meranti, yellow/ yellow seraya

S E Asia

Hardwood

Yellow-brown

660*

Medium

Limited

Low/Medium

 

Niangon

W Africa

Hardwood

Reddish-brown

640*

Medium

Variable

Low

 

Nyatoh

W Africa

Hardwood

Pale pink to red-brown

720*

Fine

Variable

Low

 

Oak, American red

N America

Hardwood

Yellowish-brown with red tinge

790

Medium

Regular

Medium

 

Oak, American white

N America

Hardwood

Pale yellow to mid-brown

770

Medium

Regular

Medium

 

Oak, European

Europe

Hardwood

Yellowish-brown

720*

Medium/ Coarse

Variable

Medium/High

 

Oak, Japanese

Japan

Hardwood

Pale yellow

670

Medium

Very limited

High

Colour

Species/ Origin

Timber Type/ Colour

Density kg/m3

Texture

Availability/ Price

 

"Oak, Tasmanian"

Australia & Tasmania

Hardwood

Pale pink to brown

610/ 710*

Coarse

Limited

Medium

 

Obeche/Wawa

W Africa

Hardwood

White to pale yellow

390

Medium

Regular

Low/Medium

 

Padauk

W Africa, Andamans, Myanmar

Hardwood

Red to dark purple-brown

740*/ 850

Coarse

Limited

High

 

Parana pine

S America

Softwood

Golden brown with bright red streaks

550

Fine

Regular

Low/Medium

 

Redwood, European

Scandinavia, Russia

Softwood

Pale yellowish-brown to red brown

510

Medium

Regular

Low

 

Rosewood

S America, India

Hardwood

Medium to dark purplish-brown with black streaks

870*

Medium

D nigra

CITES I

 

Sapele

W Africa

Hardwood

Medium reddish-brown with marked stripe figure

640

Medium

Regular Medium

 

Sepetir

S E Asia

Hardwood

Golden brown

680

Medium

Limited

Low

 

Sesendok

S E Asia

Hardwood

Pale cream to straw yellow

480

Medium to coarse

Limited

Low/Medium

 

Sycamore

Europe

Hardwood

White or yellowish-white

630

Fine

Limited

Medium

 

Taun

S E Asia

Hardwood

Pale pinkish-brown

720

Coarse

Limited

Low

 

Teak

Burma, Thailand and plantations elsewhere

Hardwood

Golden brown, Sometimes with dark markings

660

Medium

Regular

High

 

Tulipwood/ Poplar, American yellow

N American

Hardwood

Yellowish to olive brown with dark stains

510

Fine

Limited Medium

Colour

Species/ Origin

Timber Type/ Colour

Density kg/m3

Texture

Availability/ Price

 

Utile

W Africa

Hardwood

Reddish-brown

660

Medium

Regular

Medium

 

"Walnut, Africa"

W Africa

Hardwood

Yellowish-brown, sometimes with dark streaks

560

Medium

Variable

Medium

 

Walnut, American

N America

Hardwood

Rich dark brown

660

Coarse

Variable

Medium/High

 

Walnut, European

Europe

Hardwood

Grey-brown with dark streaks

670

Coarse

Limited

High

 

Wengé/ Panga panga

Central & E Africa

Harwood

Dark brown with fine black veining

880*

Coarse

Limited

Medium

 

Yew

Europe

Softwood

Orange-brown to purple-brown

670

Medium

Very Limited

High

 Colour   

Species/ Origin

 Timber Type/ Colour     Density kg/m3     Texture     Availability/ Price   

  

Abura W Africa Hardwood Light brown 580* Medium/ Fine  Limited Low
   Afrormosia W Africa    Hardwood Light brown     710    Medium/ Fine    CITES II   
  Afzelia (doussié) W Africa    Hardwood Reddish-brown    830*    Medium/ Course    Limited Medium   

 

Agba W Africa    Hardwood Yellowish-brown 510    Medium Limited Medium
 

  

Andiroba S America    Hardwood Pink to red-brown    640    Medium/ Course    Limited Medium   
 

  

Ash, American USA    Hardwood Grey, brown   670*    Course    Regular Medium   
 

  

Ash, European Europe    Hardwood White to light brown    710*    Medium/ Course    Regular Medium   
  Aspen (American, Canadian) Canada, USA    Hardwood Grey, white to pale brown    450    Fine    Variable Low   
 

  

Balsa S America    Hardwood White    160*    Fine    Limited Medium   
  Basswood N America    Hardwood Creamy white to pale brown    420    Fine    Limited Medium   
  Beech, European Europe    Hardwood Whitish to pale brown, pinkish-red if steamed    720    Fine   Regular Low/Medium   
  Birch, American North America    Hardwood Light to dark reddish brown    640/ 710    Fine    Regular Low   
  Birch, European Europe    Hardwood White to light brown    670    Fine    Limited Low   
 

  

Cedar (of Lebanon)  Europe Softwood Light brown 580 Medium Limited Low
  "Cedar, Central/S American" Central   & S America Hardwood Pinkish-brown to dark reddish-brown 480 Coarse Limited Medium

fis1.jpg GAI_thumb-56px.jpgACS Logos1.jpgribalogo_thumb_56px.jpgForza Doors specification summaries are available through the RIBA Product Selector and NBs Plus